White matter microstructure and atypical visual orienting in 7-month-olds at risk for autism.

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TitleWhite matter microstructure and atypical visual orienting in 7-month-olds at risk for autism.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsElison, JT, Paterson, SJ, Wolff, JJ, J Reznick, S, Sasson, NJ, Gu, H, Botteron, KN, Dager, SR, Estes, AM, Evans, AC, Gerig, G, Hazlett, HC, Schultz, RT, Styner, M, Zwaigenbaum, L, Piven, J
Corporate AuthorsIBIS Network
JournalAm J Psychiatry
Volume170
Issue8
Pagination899-908
Date Published2013 Aug
ISSN1535-7228
KeywordsAttention, Brain, Brain Mapping, Cerebral Cortex, Child Development Disorders, Pervasive, Cognition Disorders, Corpus Callosum, Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Emotional Intelligence, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Humans, Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted, Infant, Leukoencephalopathies, Male, Nerve Fibers, Neurons, Orientation, Pyramidal Tracts, Reaction Time, Reference Values, Reticular Formation, Saccades, Superior Colliculi, Visual Pathways
Abstract

OBJECTIVE The authors sought to determine whether specific patterns of oculomotor functioning and visual orienting characterize 7-month-old infants who later meet criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to identify the neural correlates of these behaviors. METHOD Data were collected from 97 infants, of whom 16 were high-familial-risk infants later classified as having an ASD, 40 were high-familial-risk infants who did not later meet ASD criteria (high-risk negative), and 41 were low-risk infants. All infants underwent an eye-tracking task at a mean age of 7 months and a clinical assessment at a mean age of 25 months. Diffusion-weighted imaging data were acquired for 84 of the infants at 7 months. Primary outcome measures included average saccadic reaction time in a visually guided saccade procedure and radial diffusivity (an index of white matter organization) in fiber tracts that included corticospinal pathways and the splenium and genu of the corpus callosum. RESULTS Visual orienting latencies were longer in 7-month-old infants who expressed ASD symptoms at 25 months compared with both high-risk negative infants and low-risk infants. Visual orienting latencies were uniquely associated with the microstructural organization of the splenium of the corpus callosum in low-risk infants, but this association was not apparent in infants later classified as having an ASD. CONCLUSIONS Flexibly and efficiently orienting to salient information in the environment is critical for subsequent cognitive and social-cognitive development. Atypical visual orienting may represent an early prodromal feature of an ASD, and abnormal functional specialization of posterior cortical circuits directly informs a novel model of ASD pathogenesis.

DOI10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12091150
Alternate JournalAm J Psychiatry
PubMed ID23511344
PubMed Central IDPMC3863364
Grant ListHD055741-S1 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
T32 HD40127 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U54 EB005149 / EB / NIBIB NIH HHS / United States
P30 HD03110 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
T32 HD007376 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
P30 HD003110 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
5-T32-HD007376 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
T32 HD040127 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH091645 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 HD055741 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States