Subcortical Brain and Behavior Phenotypes Differentiate Infants With Autism Versus Language Delay.

New CAR Research Sheds Light on

 

Universal Screening for Autism in Toddlers

TitleSubcortical Brain and Behavior Phenotypes Differentiate Infants With Autism Versus Language Delay.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsSwanson, MR, Shen, MD, Wolff, JJ, Elison, JT, Emerson, RW, Styner, MA, Hazlett, HC, Truong, K, Watson, LR, Paterson, S, Marrus, N, Botteron, KN, Pandey, J, Schultz, RT, Dager, SR, Zwaigenbaum, L, Estes, AM, Piven, J
Corporate AuthorsIBIS Network
JournalBiol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging
Volume2
Issue8
Pagination664-672
Date Published2017 11
ISSN2451-9030
KeywordsAutism Spectrum Disorder, Brain, Child, Preschool, Female, Humans, Language Development, Language Development Disorders, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Phenotype, Risk Factors
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are themselves at increased risk for ASD and other developmental concerns. It is unclear if infants who display developmental concerns, but are unaffected by ASD, share similar or dissimilar behavioral and brain phenotypes to infants with ASD. Most individuals with ASD exhibit heterogeneous difficulties with language, and their receptive-expressive language profiles are often atypical. Yet, little is known about the neurobiology that contributes to these language difficulties.METHODS: In this study, we used behavioral assessments and structural magnetic resonance imaging to investigate early brain structures and associations with later language skills. High-risk infants who were later diagnosed with ASD (n = 86) were compared with high-risk infants who showed signs of early language delay (n = 41) as well as with high- and low-risk infants who did not have ASD or language delay (n = 255 and 143, respectively).RESULTS: Results indicated that diminished language skills were evident at 12 months in infants with ASD and infants with early language delay. At 24 months of age, only the infants with ASD displayed atypical receptive-expressive language profiles. Associations between 12-month subcortical volumes and 24-month language skills were moderated by group status, indicating disordinal brain-behavior associations among infants with ASD and infants with language delay.CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there are different brain mechanisms influencing language development in infants with ASD and infants with language delay, and that the two groups likely experience unique sets of genetic and environmental risk factors.

DOI10.1016/j.bpsc.2017.07.007
Alternate JournalBiol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging
PubMed ID29560900
PubMed Central IDPMC5865637
Grant ListU54 EB005149 / EB / NIBIB NIH HHS / United States
P30 HD003110 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
T32 HD040127 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
K99 MH108700 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
U54 HD086984 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
L30 HD085276 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
K01 MH101653 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 HD055741 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States