Sex differences in the developing brain: insights from multimodal neuroimaging.

TitleSex differences in the developing brain: insights from multimodal neuroimaging.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsKaczkurkin, AN, Raznahan, A, Satterthwaite, TD
JournalNeuropsychopharmacology
Volume44
Issue1
Pagination71-85
Date Published2019 01
ISSN1740-634X
KeywordsAdolescent, Brain, Child, Female, Humans, Male, Mental Disorders, Multimodal Imaging, Neuroimaging, Sex Characteristics
Abstract

Youth (including both childhood and adolescence) is a period when the brain undergoes dramatic remodeling and is also a time when neuropsychiatric conditions often emerge. Many of these illnesses have substantial sex differences in prevalence, suggesting that sex differences in brain development may underlie differential risk for psychiatric symptoms between males and females. Substantial evidence documents sex differences in brain structure and function in adults, and accumulating data suggests that these sex differences may be present or emerge during development. Here we review the evidence for sex differences in brain structure, white matter organization, and perfusion during development. We then use these normative differences as a framework to understand sex differences in brain development associated with psychopathology. In particular, we focus on sex differences in the brain as they relate to anxiety, depression, psychosis, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms. Finally, we highlight existing limitations, gaps in knowledge, and fertile avenues for future research.

DOI10.1038/s41386-018-0111-z
Alternate JournalNeuropsychopharmacology
PubMed ID29930385
PubMed Central IDPMC6235840
Grant ListK12 HD085848 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH113550 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01MH113550 / / U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | NIH | National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) / International
R01MH107703 / / U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | NIH | National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) / International
ZIA MH002794 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH107703 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States