@article {1892,
title = {State-Space Representations of Deep Neural Networks.},
journal = {Neural Comput},
volume = {31},
year = {2019},
month = {2019 03},
pages = {538-554},
abstract = {This letter deals with neural networks as dynamical systems governed by finite difference equations. It shows that the introduction of k -many skip connections into network architectures, such as residual networks and additive dense networks, defines k th order dynamical equations on the layer-wise transformations. Closed-form solutions for the state-space representations of general k th order additive dense networks, where the concatenation operation is replaced by addition, as well as k th order smooth networks, are found. The developed provision endows deep neural networks with an algebraic structure. Furthermore, it is shown that imposing k th order smoothness on network architectures with d -many nodes per layer increases the state-space dimension by a multiple of k , and so the effective embedding dimension of the data manifold by the neural network is k{\textperiodcentered}d -many dimensions. It follows that network architectures of these types reduce the number of parameters needed to maintain the same embedding dimension by a factor of k2 when compared to an equivalent first-order, residual network. Numerical simulations and experiments on CIFAR10, SVHN, and MNIST have been conducted to help understand the developed theory and efficacy of the proposed concepts.

},
keywords = {Computer Simulation, Neural Networks (Computer)},
issn = {1530-888X},
doi = {10.1162/neco_a_01165},
author = {Hauser, Michael and Gunn, Sean and Saab, Samer and Ray, Asok}
}