Network inefficiencies in autism spectrum disorder at 24 months.

New CAR Research Sheds Light on

 

Universal Screening for Autism in Toddlers

TitleNetwork inefficiencies in autism spectrum disorder at 24 months.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsLewis, JD, Evans, AC, Pruett, JR, Botteron, K, Zwaigenbaum, L, Estes, A, Gerig, G, Collins, L, Kostopoulos, P, McKinstry, R, Dager, S, Paterson, S, Schultz, RT, Styner, M, Hazlett, H, Piven, J
JournalTransl Psychiatry
Volume4
Paginatione388
Date Published2014 May 06
ISSN2158-3188
KeywordsCerebral Cortex, Child Development Disorders, Pervasive, Child, Preschool, Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Female, Humans, Male, Nerve Net, Risk, Severity of Illness Index
Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder defined by behavioral symptoms that emerge during the first years of life. Associated with these symptoms are differences in the structure of a wide array of brain regions, and in the connectivity between these regions. However, the use of cohorts with large age variability and participants past the generally recognized age of onset of the defining behaviors means that many of the reported abnormalities may be a result of cascade effects of developmentally earlier deviations. This study assessed differences in connectivity in ASD at the age at which the defining behaviors first become clear. There were 113 24-month-old participants at high risk for ASD, 31 of whom were classified as ASD, and 23 typically developing 24-month-old participants at low risk for ASD. Utilizing diffusion data to obtain measures of the length and strength of connections between anatomical regions, we performed an analysis of network efficiency. Our results showed significantly decreased local and global efficiency over temporal, parietal and occipital lobes in high-risk infants classified as ASD, relative to both low- and high-risk infants not classified as ASD. The frontal lobes showed only a reduction in global efficiency in Broca's area. In addition, these same regions showed an inverse relation between efficiency and symptom severity across the high-risk infants. The results suggest delay or deficits in infants with ASD in the optimization of both local and global aspects of network structure in regions involved in processing auditory and visual stimuli, language and nonlinguistic social stimuli.

DOI10.1038/tp.2014.24
Alternate JournalTransl Psychiatry
PubMed ID24802306
PubMed Central IDPMC4035719
Grant ListR01 HD055741 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U54 HD079124 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U54 HD083091 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
HD055741 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
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