Autism.

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TitleAutism.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsLevy, SE, Mandell, DS, Schultz, RT
JournalLancet
Volume374
Issue9701
Pagination1627-38
Date Published2009 Nov 07
ISSN1474-547X
KeywordsAutistic Disorder, Behavior Therapy, Causality, Child, Child, Preschool, Communication, Comorbidity, Diagnosis, Differential, Early Diagnosis, Early Intervention (Education), Forecasting, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Genetic Variation, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mass Screening, Neurobiology, Prevalence, Risk Assessment, Socialization, Stereotyped Behavior
Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by severe deficits in socialisation, communication, and repetitive or unusual behaviours. Increases over time in the frequency of these disorders (to present rates of about 60 cases per 10,000 children) might be attributable to factors such as new administrative classifications, policy and practice changes, and increased awareness. Surveillance and screening strategies for early identification could enable early treatment and improved outcomes. Autism spectrum disorders are highly genetic and multifactorial, with many risk factors acting together. Genes that affect synaptic maturation are implicated, resulting in neurobiological theories focusing on connectivity and neural effects of gene expression. Several treatments might address core and comorbid symptoms. However, not all treatments have been adequately studied. Improved strategies for early identification with phenotypic characteristics and biological markers (eg, electrophysiological changes) might hopefully improve effectiveness of treatment. Further knowledge about early identification, neurobiology of autism, effective treatments, and the effect of this disorder on families is needed.

DOI10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61376-3
Alternate JournalLancet
PubMed ID19819542
PubMed Central IDPMC2863325
Grant ListR01 DC008871 / DC / NIDCD NIH HHS / United States
1 R01 MH083717-01A1 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH073807 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
1-R01-DC008871-01 / DC / NIDCD NIH HHS / United States
K01 MH067628-01A2 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
K01 MH067628-05 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
K01 MH067628-03 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
5R01MH076189-03 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH077000 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
1 R01 MH077000-01 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
K01 MH067628-02 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
1 P50 HD055726-01 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
1-R01-MH-073807 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
K01 MH067628-04 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
5R01MH073084 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
U10 DD000182 / DD / NCBDD CDC HHS / United States
1 R01 HD055741-01 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
R01 ES016443-01 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States
R01 ES016443 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH083717 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH073084 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
1-U10-DD-000182-03 / DD / NCBDD CDC HHS / United States
K01 MH067628 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
1K01MH067628-1 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 HD055741 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States