Assessing Causal Pathways and Targets of Implementation Variability for EBP use (Project ACTIVE): a study protocol.

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TitleAssessing Causal Pathways and Targets of Implementation Variability for EBP use (Project ACTIVE): a study protocol.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsBecker-Haimes, EM, Mandell, DS, Fishman, J, Williams, NJ, Wolk, CBenjamin, Wislocki, K, Reich, D, Schaechter, T, Brady, M, Maples, NJ, Creed, TA
JournalImplement Sci Commun
Date Published2021 Dec 20

BACKGROUND: Advancing causal implementation theory is critical for designing tailored implementation strategies that target specific mechanisms associated with evidence-based practice (EBP) use. This study will test the generalizability of a conceptual model that integrates organizational constructs and behavioral theory to predict clinician use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques in community mental health centers. CBT is a leading psychosocial EBP for psychiatric disorders that remains underused despite substantial efforts to increase its implementation.

METHODS: We will leverage ongoing CBT implementation efforts in two large public health systems (Philadelphia and Texas) to recruit 300 mental health clinicians and 600 of their clients across 40 organizations. Our primary implementation outcomes of interest are clinician intentions to use CBT and direct observation of clinician use of CBT. As CBT comprises discrete components that vary in complexity and acceptability, we will measure clinician use of six discrete components of CBT. After finishing their CBT training, participating clinicians will complete measures of organizational and behavior change constructs delineated in the model. Clinicians also will be observed twice via audio recording delivering CBT with a client. Within 48 h of each observation, theorized moderators of the intention-behavior gap will be collected via survey. A subset of clinicians who report high intentions to use CBT but demonstrate low use will be purposively recruited to complete semi-structured interviews assessing reasons for the intention-behavior gap. Multilevel path analysis will test the extent to which intentions and determinants of intention predict the use of each discrete CBT component. We also will test the extent to which theorized determinants of intention that include psychological, organizational, and contextual factors explain variation in intention and moderate the association between intentions and CBT use.

DISCUSSION: Project ACTIVE will advance implementation theory, currently in its infancy, by testing the generalizability of a promising causal model of implementation. These results will inform the development of implementation strategies targeting modifiable factors that explain substantial variance in intention and implementation that can be applied broadly across EBPs.

Alternate JournalImplement Sci Commun
PubMed ID34930483
PubMed Central IDPMC8686333
Grant ListR01 MH124897 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States